The Māori phrase ‘Tangata Whenua’ means “people of the land”, from tangata, ‘people’ and whenua ‘land’ and is given to the first indigenous people to settle in New Zealand coming from Polynesia more than 1000 years ago. Māori are considered the custodians or stewards of this land where they have lived, rather than exclusive owners. Te Reo (the Māori language) and cultural education is an important part of early childhood education as Te Reo Māori is one of our few nationally recognised languages.
Māori way of teaching / ako: The teaching of essential everyday tasks was a day-to-day activity and individuals learnt through observation and practical experience. Learning took place while tending gardens, gathering seafood, and performing other tasks essential to the welfare of the people.he Maori social structure was based on descent, seniority and the extended family and provided the basis for authority over the individual and the collective. The Ministry of Justice explains Māori social structures very well, and helps understand the effect kinship and whānau have on individual learning.
Iwi: The area of Auckland area has 6 recognised tribes or group of people with a common ancestor who can sometimes trace their ancestry to the original Maori settlers from Hawaiki. ‘Tāmaki tribes – Tāmaki tribes today Auckland map here
Maraes: There are currently 75 marae within the Waitakere region. Many are community based, and others are located within schools. Most of the established marae are available to the community for use. Common uses of marae include tangi (funerals), meetings, family reunions, workshops etc. Your local marae is a great for your centre to organise a cultural visit and understand Maori protocols.
Tamaki Makaurau Marae directory
Te Kōhanga Reo: Te Kōhanga Reo was begun in 1981 by the Department of Maori Affairs in response to Maori concern to ensure the continuing survival of the Mäori language. It differs from other early childhood services, as it is mainly concerned with the survival of the Māori language and whānau social development through te reo, tikanga and āhuatanga Māori. It is a journey for the child but the whole family, and offers courses for parents, through whānau learning as well as professional development for Kaiako (teachers), kaimahi (the people who do the work) and parents. The first Kōhanga Reo, Pukeatua, was opened in 1982 (near Wellington), and has flourished in an environment of excitement and celebration. Kōhanga Reo is now a group of early education services where all instruction is delivered in te reo Māori (Māori language). Kōhanga reo is a whānau (family) dependent programme, parents and whānau are closely involved with children’s’ development and learning. They are also responsible for the management, operation and everyday decision making for the Kōhanga Reo. Parents are also encouraged to take part in the daily programme provided by Kōhanga reo. At Kōhanga Reo mokopuna (children) are totally immersed in Māori language and tikanga (culture) from birth through to the age of six. This means that the only language spoken at Kōhanga Reo is Māori.
The translation of the words Kohanga Reo is ‘language nest’. This translation relates directly to one of the key objectives of the Kōhanga Reo movement – the retention of the Māori language. Kōhanga Reo totally immerses children in Māori language and culture in an effort to promote learning within a context/situation that is relevant to the children and which draws on Māori styles of learning and teaching.
Parenting: Document An Historical Review of Literature of Traditional Maori Child Rearing Practices in Pre -European
Te Reo Māori online: Immersion – One language is never enough / Kore rawa e rawaka te reo kotahi. The best way to learn is immersion. The best advice we can give you is to do a little everyday. – but what is the best way to do a little everyday? Use bilingual signs – signs are a visible way of showing that te reo is valued at your workplace and school, place them all around you. Put signs on each of your appliances, chair, oven, bathroom door etc. Immerse yourself in Māori, make friends with people that speak Māori, listen to Māori radio, watch Māori TV Te Karere (the Māori news on TVNZ), and visit:
- Korero Maori
- 1000 words every New Zealander should know Visit New Zealand
- history online
- Useful Maori phrases at omniglot.com
- Te whanake has study guides, CDs, teachers’ manuals and a dictionary for learning and teaching Māori language.
- Subscribe to a word a day to immerse into Māori, little little, daily with kupu.maori.nz
- Te Taura Whiri i te reo Maori Maori Language commission www.tetaurawhiri.govt.nz
Pronounciation / Whakahuatanga: To get close to a decent Maori pronunciation we need to understand the macron which is the line above a vowel to indicate that it should be spoken as a long vowel: ā, ē, ī, ō, ū . In Te reo it is called a tohutō (or pōtae – hat). Listen to as much as possible.
Some place names pronounced here nzhistory.net.nz
To type macrons on your keyboad:
Proverbs / Ngā Whakataukī, Ngā Whakatauākī: Proverbs fulfilled an important function in traditional Māori communities. They could serve as a generalised code for establishing standards in ethical and moral behaviour. Some tribes and sub tribes have particular sayings that relate specifically to their whakapapa (geneology) links, history, attributes or practices. These types of sayings are called pēpeha. Whakataukī are proverbs that the person who first said it first, is not known, and whakatauākī are proverbs where the person who said it first is known.
Māori Television – Whakataukī is and on-demand programme about the proverbs heard within the subtribes and tribes of the country, presented in the Māori language. Tribal language experts detail origins and more comprehensive meaning.
Songs, stories, cultural play / Waiata :
- Hei Waiata, Hei Whakakoakoa has been developed to support the teaching and learning of te reo Māori.
The Marae by Warren Pohatu (2007) Reed pub. Children’s picture book.
- Te Reo Singalong learn Te reo Maori the easy way with picture song books and CD’s.
- Bilingual English/Māori CDs of children’s songs: www.ucamusic.com
- Waiata from AUT freely available to anyone interested in learning songs in te reo Māori.
- Fun With Flax by Maurice Prendergrast, Reed Publications. For beginners: planting, protocols, things to make with flax from around the Pacific.
Planning a bicultural curriculum:
Bicultural resources developed by Ngaroma Williams and Mary Elizabeth Broadle
Te Marae: A Guide to Customs & Protocols: Pat & Hiwi Tauroa, Reed Publications
Te Wheke: A Celebration of Infinite Wisdom by Rangimarie Rose Pere. Ao ako Global Learning NZ, Gisborne. Maori concepts such as aroha, mauri, mana.
Te Ao Maori: The Maori World (2007) bilingual book and DVD by Rapata Wiri, Reed Pub. The culture, arts, tour of meeting house – large, captivating photos.
Treaty of Waitangi: The Treaty of Waitangi published by State Services Commission: history, timeline etc
Treaty Resource centre delivers courses for the public and professional development for organisations and has a reference section with publications
Bicultural research and reports:
- Ngā Taonga Whaakaro: Bicultural competence in early childhood education – Research report. Authors: Ngaroma Williams – Te Tari Puna Ora o Aotearoa (NZ Childcare Association) and Mary-Elizabeth Broadley – Open Polytechnic, 2012.
- A Bicultural Curriculum for Toddlers: Living It Every Day? by Iveta Ongley
- Bicultural Development within an Early Childhood Teacher Education Programme by Jenny Ritchie